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Basic Experimental Mechanics

 

Thermoelastic stress analysis

 

Structural Materials & Mechanics Research Group

 

 

Basic principles

When a body is subjected to a tensile stress the temperature of the body reduces slightly, and conversely when subjected to a compressive stress a slight increase in temperature occurs. When the body is in a cyclic loading regime, for instance during repeated loading or vibration, the small cyclic change in surface temperature of the body can be measured. This temperature change is directly proportional to the change in the sum of principal stresses on the component surface. Thermoelastic detection systems output the magnitude of this cyclic temperature change and also the phase of the cycle compared to a reference signal, commonly taken from a strain gauge applied to the component surface or from a load cell of a servo-hydraulic loading frame. This output can, with calibration, be directly related to the change in the sum of the principal surface stresses. The only surface preparation required is to ensure the uniform emissivity of the component surface in the infrared wavelengths to which the detector being used is sensitive, which can usually be achieved by the application of a thin layer of matt black paint. Because the detectors are measuring photon emission from a surface, the technique can also be used obliquely, with satisfactory results obtainable at up to 60 degrees from the axis normal to the surface.

 

Bibliography

A substantial list divided into six sections: Fundamentals; Post-processing; Composites; Damage assessment; Fracture mechanics; Other applications.

 

Fundamentals

1. Thomson, W. (Lord Kelvin), "On the Dynamical Theory of Heat", Transaction of the Royal Society of Edinbourgh, vol.20, pp. 261-283, 1853.

2. Thomson, W. (Lord Kelvin), "On the Thermoelastic, Thermomagnetic and Pyro-electric Properties of Matters", Philosophical Magazine, vol. 5, pp. 4-27, 1878.

3. Rocca, R., Bever, M. B., "TheThermoelastic Effect in Iron and Nickel (As a Function of Temperature)", Trans. AIME, vol. 188, 1950, pp. 327-333.

4. Biot, M. A., "Thermoelasticity and Irreversible Thermodynamics", Journal of applied phisics, vol.27, No. 3, pp. 240-253, 1956.

5. Belgen, M. H., "Structural Stress Measurements with an Infrared Radiometer", ISA, Trans., vol. 6, 1967.

6. Belgen, M.H., "Infrared radiometric stress instrumentation application range study", NASA Contractor Report: CR-1067, (1968).

7. Stanley, P., Chan, W.K., "Quantitative stress analysis by means of the termoelastic effect", Journal of Strain Analysis, Vol. 20 (3), 1985, pp. 129-137.

8. Stanley, P., Chan, W.K., "SPATE Stress Studies of plates and rings under in-plane loading", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 57-77.

9. Machin, A.S., Sparrow, J.G., Stimson, M.G., "Mean stress dependence of the thermoelastic constant", Strain, pp. 27-30, February 1987.

10. Wong, A.K., Jones, R., Sparrow, J.G., "Thermoelastic constant or thermoelastic parameter?", Journal of Physics and chemistry of solids, vol. 48, No. 8, pp. 749-753, 1987.

11. Wong, A.K., Sparrow, J.G., Dunn, S.A., "On the revised theory of the thermoelastic effect", Journal of Physics and chemistry of solids, vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 395-400, 1988.

12. Wong, A.K., Dunn, S.A., Sparrow, J.G., "Residual stress measurement by means of the thermoelastic effect", Nature, vol. 332, No. 6165, pp. 613-615, April 1988.

13. Dunn, S., Lombardo, D., Sparrow, J.G., "The mean stress effect in metallic alloys and composites", Proceedings of the International Conference on Stress and Vibration (Including 3rd Int.Conf. on Stress Analysis by Thermoelastic techniques), London, SPIE vol. 1084, pp. 129-142, 1989. (see also C10)

14. Bakis, C.E., Reifsnider, K.L., "Adiabatic Thermoelastic Measurements", Section VII-B in SEM Manual on Experimental Methods for Mechanical Testing of Composites, R.L. Pendleton and M.L. Tuttle eds., Soc. Exp. Mech., 1989, pp. 139-146.

15. MacKenzie, A.K., "Effects of surface coatings on infrared measurements of thermoelastic responses", Stress and Vibration: Developments in Industrial Measurement and Analysis, Stanley P. (ed.), SPIE 1084, pp. 59-71.

16. Harwood, N., Cummings, W.M., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis", IOP Publishing Ltd, Bristol, 1991.

17. Dunn, S.A., "On the Effects of Through-thickness Thermal Conduction on Stress Measurement by Thermoelastic Techniques", Experimental Mechanics, March 1993, pp. 32-36.

18. Kinra, V.K., Milligan, K.B., "A second-law analysis of thermoelastic damping", Journal of Applied Mechanics (Transaction of the ASME), March 1994, vol. 61, pp. 71-76.

19. Ryall, T. G., Wong, A. K., "Design of a Focal-plane Array Thermographic System for Stress Analisys", Experimental Mechanics, June 1995, pp. 144-147.

20. Ryall, T. G., Wong, A. K., "Performance of the FAST system for Stress Analisys", Experimental Mechanics, June 1995, pp. 148-152.

21. Lesniak, J. R., Boyce, B.R., "A High-Speed Differential Thermographic Camera", paper downloaded by the internet site www.stressphotonics.com/TSA, and presented at the 1995 Spring SEM conference.

22. Dulieu-Smith, S.M., "Alternative calibration techniques for quantitative thermoelastic stress analysis", Strain, February 1995 , pp. 9-16.

23. Offermann, S., Beaudoin, J.L., Bissieux, C., Frick, H., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis Under Nonadiabatic Conditions" , Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 37 (4), 1997, pp. 409-413.

24. Dunn, S.A., "Using nonlinearities for improved stress analysis by thermoelastic techniques", Applied Mechanics Review, 50, (1997), pp. 499-513.

25. Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Stanley, P., "Reproducibility and Reliability of the Response from Four SPATE Systems" , Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 37 (4), 1997, pp. 440-444.

26. Stanley, P., Applications and potential of thermoelastic stress analysis", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 64 (1-3), Feb. 1997, pp. 359-370.

27. Dulieu-Barton, J. M., Stanley, P., "Development and applications of thermoelastic stress analisys", Journal of strain analisys, 1998, vol. 33 ( N° 2), pp. 93-104.

28. Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Quinn, S., "On the interpretation of thermal conduction in thermoelastic stress analysis", Proceedings of the 1998 SEM Spring Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, June 1-3, 1998, Houston, USA, pp. 511-514.

29. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Stanley, P., "On the interpretation and significance of the Gruneisen parameter in thermoelastic stress analysis", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 78, pp. 75-83, 1998.

30. Schley, C., Smith, G. F., "Classification of materials for thermoelastic stress analisys", Experimental Mechanics, Allison (ed.), 1998, pp. 475-480.

31. Lesniak, J. R., Boyce, B.R., Howenwater, G.,"Thermoelastic Measurement Under Random Loading", paper downloaded by the internet site www.stressphotonics.com/TSA, and presented at the 1998 Spring SEM conference.

32. Dulieu-Barton,J.M., Quinn, S., "Thermoelastic stress analysis of oblique holes in flat plates", International Journal of Mechanical Science, 41 (4-5), pp. 527-546, Apr-May 1999.

33. Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Introduction to thermoelastic stress analysis", Strain, May 1999, pp. 35-39.

34. Byrd, L.W., Haney, M.A., "Thermoelastic stress analysis applied to fully reversed bending fatigue", Experimental Mechanics, Mar 2000, 40 (1), pp.10-14.

35 Galietti, U., Metta, N., Pappalettere, C., "thermoelastic Stress Analysis: numerical automatic shape reconstruction for stress separation", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 92-95.

36 Gardner, D.W., Mackin, T.J., "On the resolution limits of thermoelastic stress analysis", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 76-79.

 

Post-processing

1. Balas, J., "Some Applications of Experimenal Analysis of Models and Structures", Experimental Mechanics, Marzo 1967, pp.127-139.

2. Huang, Y.M., Abdelmohsen, H.H., Lohr, D., Feng, Z., Rowlands, R.E., Stanley, P., "Determination of individual stress components from SPATE isopachic only". Proc. 6th Int. Congress on Exp. Mech., Portland. Oregon, 1988, pp. 578-584.

3. Stanley, P., "Stress separation from SPATE data for rotationally symmetrical pressure vessel", Recent Developments in Industrial Measurament and Analysis, SPIE Volume 1084, P. Stanley ed., 1989, pp. 72-83.

4. Huang, Y.M., Abdel Mohsen, H.H., Rowlands, R.E., "Determination of Individual Stresses Thermoelastically", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 30 (1), 1990, pp. 88-94.

5. Huang, Y.M., Rowlands, R.E., "Quantitative stress analysis based on the measured trace of the stress tensor", Journal of Strain Analysis, Vol. 26 (1), 1991, pp. 55-63.

6. Huang, Y.M., Rowlands, R.E., Lesniak, J.R., "Simultaneous stress separation, smoothing of measured thermoelastic isopachic information and enhanced boundary data", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 30 (4), 1990, pp. 398-404.

7. Ryall, T.G., Heller, M., Jones, R., "Determination of stress components from thermoelastic data without boundary conditions", Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 59, 1992, pp. 841-847.

8. Feng, Z., Zhang, D., Rowlands, R.E., Sandor, B.I., "Thermoelastic determination of individual stress components in loaded composites", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 32, 1992, pp. 89-95. (see also 17)

9. Lesniak, J.R., "Thermoelastic data improvements", Proceedings of 1993 SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mmechanics, Dearborn, Michigan, pp. 721-729.

10. Rauch, B.J., Rowlands, R.E., "Recent advances in determining individual stresses from thermoelastically measured isopachics", Proceedings of 1993 SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Dearborn, Michigan, pp. 740-748.

11. Rauch, B.J., Rowlands, R.E., "Determining reliable edge isopachic data from interior thermoelastic measuraments", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 35 (2), 1995, pp. 174-181.

12. Lin, S.T., Rowlands, R.E., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis of Orthotropic Materials", Experimental Mechanics, September 1995, pp. 257-265 (see also C25).

13. Stanley, P., Dulieu-Smith, J.M., "Devices for the experimental determination of individual stresses from thermoelastic data", Journal of Strain Analysis, Vol. 31 (1), 1996, pp. 53-63.

14. Lin, S.T., Miles, J.P., Rowlands, R.E., "Image Enhancement and Stress Separation of Thermoelastically Measured Data under Random Loading", ", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 37 (3), 1997, pp. 225-231.

15. Kishimoto, K., Inque, H., Shinbo, H., Shibuya, T., "Inverse analysis related to stress separation in thermoelastic stress analysis", JSME International Journal, Series A, Vol. 40 (2), 1997, pp. 108-116.

16. Barone, S., "A technique for smoothing interior thermoelastic data and enhancing boundary information", Strain, Vol. 33 (1), 1997, pp. 9-13.

17. Rauch, B.J., Rowlands, R.E., "Filtering thermoelastically measured isopachic data", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 37 (4), 1997, pp. 387-392.

18. Galietti, U., Pappalettere, C., "Discontinuities location and assessment of SFC from thermoelastic data", Experimental Mechanics, Allison (ed.), 1998, pp. 469-474.

19. Comlekci, T., Boyle, J. T., "A geheral hibrid numerical/experimental technique for thermoelastic stress separation", Experimental Mechanics, Allison (ed.), 1998, pp. 463-468.

20. Barone, S., Patterson, E.A., "An iterative, finite difference method for post-processing thermoelastic data using compatibility", Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, vol. 33 (6), 1998, pp. 437-447.

21. Barone, S., Patterson, E.A., "Full-field separation of principal stresses by combined Thermo- and Photoelasticity", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 36 (4), 1996, pp. 318-324.

22. Barone, S., Patterson, E. A., "Polymer coatings as strain witness in thermoelasticity", Journal of strain analysis, vol. 33 (No 3), 1998, pp. 223-232.

23. Barone, S., Patterson, E. A., "The development of simultaneous thermo- and photo-elasticity for principal stress analyses", Strain, May 1999, pp. 57-65.

24. Hayabusa, K., Inque, H., Kishimoto, K., Shibuya, T., "Boudary element inverse analysis for stress separation in thermoelastic stress analysis", JSME International Journal, Series A, Vol. 42 (4), October 1999, pp. 618-623.

25. Galietti, U., Metta, N., Pappalettere, C., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis: numerical automatic shape reconstruction for stress separation", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 92-95.

 

Composites

1. Gilmour, I.W., Trainor, A., Haward, R.N., "The thermoelastic effect in glassy polymers", Joyrnal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., vol. 16, pp. 1277-1290, 1978.

2. Gilmour, I.W., Trainor, A., Haward, R.N., "Calculation of the Gruneisen constant of glassy polymers from thermoelastic data", Joyrnal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., vol. 16, pp. 1291-1295, 1978.

3. Jones, R., Tay, T.E., Williams, J.F., "Thermomechanical behaviour of composites", Proc. USA Army Workshop on Composite Material Response: Constitutive Relations and Damage Mechanisms (Glasgow, July 1987), ed. G.C. Sih, G.F. Smith, I.H. Marshall and J.J. Wuh (New York: Elsevier), pp. 49-59, 1987.

4. Cox, B.N., Pettit, D.E., " Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Materials Using the Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission Technique", Proc. SEM Spring Conf., Huston, Texas, June 1987, ppp.14-19.

5. Potter, R.T., "Stress analysis in laminated fibre composites by thermoelastic emission", Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conference on Stress Analysis by Thermoelastic Techniques (London), SPIE vol. 731, pp. 110-120, 1987.

6. Potter, R.T., Greaves, L.J., "The application of thermoelastic stress analysis technique to fibre composites", Proceedings of the Conference on Optical and Opto-electronic Applied Science and Engineering (San Diego, August 1988), SPIE vol. 817, pp. 134-146, 1988.

7. Kageyama, K., Ueki, K., Kikuchi, M., "Thermoelastic technique applied to stress analysis of carbon fiber reinforced composite material", Proceedings of VI International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, Portland (USA), June 1988.

8. Stanley, P., Chan, W.H., "The application of thermoelastic stress analysis techniques to composite materials", Journal of Strain Analysis, vol. 23, pp.137-143, 1988.

9. Kageyama, K., Ueki, K., Kikuchi, M., "Fatigue damage analysis of notched Carbon/Epoxy laminates by thermoelastic emission and three dimensional finite element methods", Proc. 7th Conf. Comp. Mat. ICCM 7, Aug. 1989. (see also D7)

10. Heller, M., Williams, J.F., Dunn, S., Jones, R., "Thermomechanical analysis of composite specimens", Composite Structures, vol. 11, pp. 309-324, 1989. (see also D5)

11. Dunn, S., Lombardo, D., Sparrow, J.G., "The mean stress effect in metallic alloys and composites", Proceedings of the International Conference on Stress and Vibration (Including 3rd Int.Conf. on Stress Analysis by Thermoelastic techniques), London, SPIE vol. 1084, pp. 129-142, 1989. (see also A9)

12. Zhang, D., Sandor, B.I., "Thermographic analysis of stress concentrations in a composite", Experimental Mechanics, vol. 29, No.2, pp.121-125, June 1989.

13. Zhang, D., Enke, N.F., Sandor B.I., "Thermographic stress analysis of composite materials", Experimental Mechanics, vol. 30, pp. 68-73, March 1990.

14. Kanellis, A.G., Ashton, J.N., "Thermographic investigation of through thickness and in-plane stresses in glass reinforced plastics", Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Exp. Mjech., Copenhagen, pp. 781-792, 1990.

15. Harwood, N., Cummings, W.M., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis", Adam Hilger IOP Publishing, Chap.7-8, 1991.

16. Wong, A.K., "A non-adiabatic thermoelastic theory for composite laminates", Journal of Physics and chemistry of solids, vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 483-494, 1991.

17.Bakis, C.E., Reifsnider, K.L., "The adiabatic thermoelastic effect in laminated fiber composites", Journal of composite materials, vol. 25, pp. 809-830, July 1991.

18. Feng, Z., Zhang, D., Rowlands, R.E., Sandor, B.I., "Thermoelastic determination of individual stress components in loaded composites", Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 32, pp. 89-95, 1992. (see also B8)

19. Dunn, S.A., "Analysis of Thermal Conduction Effects on Thermoelastic Temperature Measuraments for Composite", Journal of Applied Mechanics - Transaction of the ASME, vol. 59, pp. 552-558, September 1992.

20. Dunn, S.A., "Separation of stress components in composite materials from thermoelastic temperature measurements", Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 60, pp. 443-448, 1993.

21. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Stanley, P., "Developments in the interpretation of the thermoelastic response of composite materials", Proc. 2nd Int. Seminar on Experimental Techniques and Design in Composite Materials, Sheffield, pp. 120-139, 1994.

22. Potter, R.T., Wong, A.K., "Thermoelastic analysis of composites", Proc. 2nd Int. Seminar on Experimental Techniques and Design in Composite Materials, Sheffield, 1994.

23. Fisher, C., "Stress analysis by thermal emission in composite materials", Proc. 2nd Int. Seminar on Experimental Techniques and Design in Composite Materials, Sheffield, 1994.

24. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Stanley, P., "The thermoelastic response of a thin walled orthotropic cylinder loaded in torsion", Proceedings of the SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Baltimore, pp.498-506, 1994.

25. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Casciero, E., Garroch C., Panautas, P., Stanley, P., "Thermoelastic analysis of stress concentration in thin orthotropic cylindrical tubes", Proc. SEM Spring Conf. on Experimental Mechanics, Gran Rapids, pp. 360-367, 1995.

26. Lin, S.T., Rowlands, R.E., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis of Orthotropic Materials", Experimental Mechanics, September 1995, 257-265 (see also B12).

27. Machin, T.J., Purcell, T.E., "The use of thermoelasticity to evaluate stress redistribution and notch sensitivity in ceramic matrix composites", Experimental Techniques, pp. 15-20, March/April 1996.

28. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Stanley, P., "A review of damage studies in fibre reinforced composites using the thermoelastic technique", XXV AIAS National Conference &Int. Conf. On Material Engineering, pp. 891-898, Lecce (Italy), 1996. (see also D14)

29.Dwyer, J.F., Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Stanley, P., "Predicting the termhoelastic response and relevant material properties of SMC", J. Mater. Proc. Technol., vol. 56, pp. 655-667, 1996.

30. Stanley, P., Garroch, C., "Improvements in the prediction and characterization of the thermoelastic response of glass-fibre reinforced composite products", International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol.39, No. 2, pp. 163-172, 1997.

31. Dulieu-Smith, J.M, Quinn, J.M., Shenoi, S., Read, P.J.C.L., Moy, S.S.J., "Thermoelastic stress analysis of a GRP tee joint",Applied Composite Materials, vol.4,pp. 283-303, 1997.

32. Owens, R.H., "Application of the thermoelastic effect to typical aerospace composite materials", Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Stress Analysis by Thermoelastic Technique, London (1997), SPIE 731, pp. 74-85.

33. Roberts, M.C., Anderson, D., Mackin, T.J. "Stress Redistribution and Notch Sensitivity in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)", Proceedings of SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Seattle (Bellevue), Washington, June 2-4 1997, pp. 361-362.

34. Rhee, J., Rowlands, R.E., "A new hybrid method for determining stresses associated with geometric discontinuities in loaded composites", Abstract Proceedings of the SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Seattle (Bellevue), Washington, June 2-4 1997, pp. 355-356.

35. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Read, P.J.C.L., Shenoi, R.A., "Thermoelastic analysis of foam-cored sandwich construction tee-joints", 11th Int. Conf. On Composite Materials, Gold Coast, Australia, 1997, pp. 699-708.

36. Stanley, P., Garroch, C., "A thermoelastic disc test for the mechanical characterisation of fibre-reinforced moulded composites: theory", Composites Science and Technology, vol. 59, pp. 371-378, 1999.

37. Garroch, C., Stanley, P., "A thermoelastic disc test for the mechanical characterisation of fibre-reinforced moulded composites: application", Composites Science and Technology, vol. 59, pp. 379-389, 1999.

38. Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Grigg, J.S., Shenoi, R.A., Clark, S.D., Chambers, A.R., "Thermoelastic Analysis of sandwich construction tee-joints loaded in compression", 12th International Conference on Composite Materials, Paris, 1999.

39. Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Stanley, P., "Applications of thermoelastic stress analysis to composite materials", Strain, May 1999, pp. 41-48.

40. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Read, P.J.C.L., Shenoi, R.A., "Thermoelastic analysis of foam -cored sandwich construction tee-joints", 11th Int. Conf. On Composite Materials, Gold Coast, 1997, pp. 699-708.

41. Grigg, J.S., Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Shenoi, R.A., "Validation of a complex composite construction using thermoelastic stress analysis", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 355-358.

 

Damage Assessment

1. Reifsnider, K.L., Williams, R.S., "Determination of fatugue-related heat emission in composite materials", Experimental Mechanics, Marzo 1974, pp. 479-485.

2. Charles, J.A., Appl, F.J., Francis, J.E., "Using the scanning infrared camera in experimental fatigue studies", Experimental Mechanics, April 1975, pp.479-485.

3. Lohr, D.T., Enke, N.F., Sandor, B.I., "Analysis of fatigue damage evolution by differential infrared thermography", Proc. SEM Fall Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Savannah, Georgia, 1987, pp. 169-174.

4. Lohr, D.T., Sandor, B.I., "Impact damage analysis by differential infrared thermography", Proc. SEM Fall Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Savannah, Georgia, 1987, pp. 39-44.

5. Cox, B. N. and Pettit, D. E., "Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Materials Using the Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emissions Technique", Proc. of the 1987 SEM Spring Conf. on Exp. Mechs., June 1987, pp. 545-552.

6. Heller, M., Williams, J.F., Dunn, S., Jones, R., "Thermomechanical analysis of composite specimens", Composite Structures, 1989, 11, pp. 309-324. (see also C9)

7. Bakis, C. E., Yih, H. R., Stinchcomb, W. W., Reifsnider, K. L., "Damage Initiation and Growth in Notched Laminates under Reversed Cyclic Loading", Composite Materials: Fatigue and Fracture, vol. 2, 1989, pp. 66-83.

8. Jones, R., Heller, M., Lombardo, D., Dunn, S, Paul, J., Saunders, D., "Thermoelastic assessment of damage growth in composites", Composite Structures, 1989, 12, pp. 291-314.

9. Kageyama, K., Ueki, K., Kikuchi, M., "Fatigue damage analysis of notched Carbon/Epoxy laminates by thermoelastic emission and three dimensional finite element methods", Proc. 7th Conf. Comp. Mat. ICCM 7, Aug. 1989. (see also C8)

10. Zhang, D., Sandor, B.I., "A thermoelastic theory for damage in anisotropic materials", Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, 1990, 13, pp. 497-509.

11. Zhang, D., Sandor, B.I., "Advances in thermographic stress analysis and evaluation of damage in composites ", Composite Materials: Testing and Design (Tenth volume), ASTM STP 1120, Glenn, C. Grimes, Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1992, pp. 428-443.

12. Purcell, T.E., "Damage assessment in MMC composites using thermoelastic techniques", SEM Spring Conference, proceedings of the VII International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 8-11, 1992, pp. 1550-1557.

13. Mahoney, B.J., Miles, J.P., Sandor, B.I., "Quantifying damage in composites under random loading using thermoelastic stress analysis", Proc. SEM Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Dearborn, 1993, pp. 610-616.

14. Mahoney, B.J, "Experimental validation of a methodology to quantify distributed damage in laminated composites using the thermoelastic effect", Experimental Techniques, 1996, 20, pp. 28-31.

15. Cantwell, W.J., Morton, J., "Significance of damage and their detection in composite materials: a review",Journal of Strain Analysis, 1992, vol.27, n° 1, pp. 31-35.

16. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Stanley, P., "A review of damage studies in fibre reinforced composites using the thermoelastic technique", XXV AIAS National Conference &Int. Conf. On Material Engineering, Lecce, 1996, pp. 891-898.

17. Dulieu-Smith, J.M., Quinn, S., Minervini, D., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis of damage in woven glass/polyester panels", Proceedings of SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Seattle, Washington, 1997, pp. 359-360.

18. Uenoya, T., Fujii, T., "Influence of matrix toughness on damage initiation and growth in carbon fiber fabric composites", Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 19 (1), 2000, pp.83-94.

19. Mackin, T.J., Roberts, M.C., "Evaluation of damage evolution in ceramic-matrix composites using thermoelastic stress analysis", Journal of the American-Ceramic-Society, 83 (20), Feb 2000, pp. 337-343.

20. Bakis, C.E., Reifsnider, K.L., "Non-destructive Evaluation of Fiber Composite Laminates by Thermoelastic Emission", Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, 7, 1988, pp. 1109-1116.

21. Horn, G., Mackin, T., Kurath, P., "Quantifying machining damage in polymer composites", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 88-91.

 

Fracture Mechanics

1. Stanley, P. , Chan, W. K., " The determination of stress intensity factors and crack tip velocities from thermoelastic infra-red emissions", Proc. of International conference of fatigue of engineering materials and structures, c262, IMechE, Sheffield, UK, (1986), pp. 105-114.

2. Stanley, P. , Chan, W. K., "Mode II crack studies using the "SPATE" technique" , Proc. of SEM spring conference on experimental mechanics, (1986) , pp. 916-923.

3. Leaity, G . P., Smith, R. A., "The use of SPATE to measure residual stresses and fatigue crack growth", Fatigue and fracture of engineering materials and structures, 12, 4, (1989), pp. 271-282.

4. Shiratori, M., Miyoshi, T., Nakanishi, T., Noda, T., Hanada, " Detection of crack and measurement of stress intensity factors by infrared video system", JSME International Journal, seriesI, 33, 3, (1990), pp. 400-408.

5. Stanley, P., and Dulieu-smith, J. M., "Progress in the thermoelastic evaluation of mixed mode stress intensity factors", Proceedings of the SEM spring conference on experimental mechanics, Dearborn, (1993), pp. 617-626.

6. Pang, H. L. J., "Experimental stress analysis of fatigue crack by SPATE", Experimental technique, 17, 2 (1993), pp. 20-22.

7. Fleming, M. J., Lesniak, J. R., "Thermoelastic stress analysis of fatigue cracking in the web gap of steel bridges", proc. of the SEM spring conference on experimental mechanics, (1994), pp. 355-359.

8. Dulieu-Smith, J. M., Stanley, P., "s0x and its role in the determinationof crack-tip isopachics", Proceedings BSSM Annual Conference, Sheffield, UK, 1995, pp. 28-30.

9. Stanley, P., Dulieu-Smith, J. M., "The determinartion of crack tip parameters from thermoelastic data", Experimental Techniques, 20, 1996, pp. 21-23.

10. Lesniak, J.R., Bazile, D.J., Boyce, B.R., Zickel, M.J., Cramer, K.E., Welch, C.S., "Stress intensity measurement via infrared focal plane array", paper downloaded by the internet site www.stressphotonics.com/TSA. Also available in Nontraditional Methods of Sensing Stress, Strain, and Damage in Materials and Structure, ASTM STP 1318, George F. Lucas and David A. Stubbs, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Pholadelphia 1997.

11. Ju, S.H., Lesniak, J.R., Sandor, B.I., "Numerical simulation of stress intensity factors via the thermoelastic technique", Experimental Mechanics, vol. 37 (No. 3), 1997, pp.278-284.

12. Lin, S. T., Feng, Z., Rowlands, R. E., "Thermoelastic determination of stress intensity factors in orthotropic composites using the J-integral" , Engineering fracture mechanics, 56,4 (1997), pp. 579-592.

13. Tomlinson, R. A., Nurse, A. D., Patterson, E. A., "On determining stress intensity factors for mixed mode cracks from thermoelastic data" , Fatigue and fracture of engineering materials and structures, 20, 2 (1997), pp. 217-226.

14. Fulton, M. C., Dulieu-Barton, J. M., Stanley, P., "Improved evaluation of stress intensity factors from SPATE data" , Proc. of the 11th international conference in experimental mechanics, Oxford, UK, (1998), pp. 1211-1216.

15. Tomlinson, R. W., Olden, E. J., "Thermoelasticity for the analysis of crack tip stress field - a review", Strain, May 1999, pp. 49-55.

16. Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Fulton, M.C., Stanley, P., "The analysis of thermoelastic isopachic data from crack tip stress fields", Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct, 23, April 2000, pp. 301-313.

17. Harwood, N., Cummings, W.M., "Thermoelastic Stress Analysis", IOP Publishing Ltd, Bristol, 1991 (Chapter 5).

18. Hawong, J.S., Suh, J.G., Rowlands, R.E., "Measuring stress intensity factors in orthotropic materials using SPATE", Int. Conf. on Structural Failure Product Liability and Technical Assurance, Vienna, 1995.

19. Kitchin, R.A., Nurse, A.D., Patterson, E.A., "A new procedure for the determination of stress intensity factors from thermoelastic data", Proc. VIII Int. Conf. on Experimental Mechanics, Nashville, June, 1996, pp. 505-506.

20. Batchelor, H., Patterson, E.A., Yates, J.R., "Detection of fatigue crack closure using thermoelastic stress analysis", Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Lisbon, 1998, ASME, Paper OMAE98-2651, CD-ROM ISBN 0-7918-1952-3, 1998.

21. Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Fulton, M.C., Stanley, P., "The analysis of thermoelastic isopachic data from crack tip stress fields", Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct, 23, April 2000, pp. 301-313.

22. Noč, S.C., Mackin, T.J., "Effect of DC electric fields on crack tip stress intensity in glasses", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 131-132.

23. Tomlinson, R.A., Yates, J.R., "An investigation of crack closure using thermoelasticity", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 137-139.

 

Other applications

1. Woodward, R. J., Cunninghame, J. R., Gresty, J. L., "Application of Thermoelastic Stress Analysis to Concrete", 1st Int. Conf. Stress Anal. Thermoelastic Tech., London, Nov. 1984, pp. 27-28.

2. Cummings, W. M. and Harwood, N., "Development of Techniques for the Thermoelastic Stress Analysis of Structures Operating in Service", SEM Conf. on Exp. Mechs., 1986, June.

3. Rajic, N., Wong, A.K., Lam, Y.C., "A thermomechanical technique for measuring residual stress", Experimental Techniques, March/April 1996, pp. 25-27.

4. Lesniak, J.R., Bartel, B., "An elevated-temperature TSA furnace design", paper downloaded by the internet site www.stressphotonics.com/TSA, This paper originally appeared in the March/April '96 issue (Vol.20 #2) of "Experimental Techniques". ET is a publication of SEM (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc).

5. Farris, T.H., Harish, G., Szolwinski, M.P., Sakagami, T., "Coupled Thermoelastic Stress Measurement Applied to Fretting", SEM Spring Conf. On Expt. Mech., June 1998.

6. Sakagami, T., Szolwinski, M.P., Harish, G., Farris, T.N., "Full-field subsurface temperature measurement in fretting", SEM Spring Conf. On Expt. Mech., June 1998.

7. Calvert, G.C., "Developments in rapid thermoelastic analysis", Strain, May 1999, pp. 67-71.

8. Sakagami, T., Ogura, K., Kubo, S., Lesniak, J.R., Boyce, B., Sandor, B.I., "Investigation of contact stresses using thermoelastic stress measurement", Proceedings of SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Seattle (Bellevue), Washington, June 2-4 1997, pp. 363-364.

9. Sakagami, T., et al., "Visualisation of contact stress distribution using infrared stress measurement system", SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3056, 1997.

10. Farris, T.H., Harish, G., Szolwinski, M.P., Sakagami, T., "Coupled Thermoelastic Stress Measurement Applied to Fretting", SEM Spring Conf. On Expt. Mech., June 1998. (N.F.)

11. Sakagami, T., Szolwinski, M.P., Harish, G., Farris, T.N., "Full-field subsurface temperature measurement in fretting", SEM Spring Conf. On Expt. Mech., June 1998. (N.F.)

12. Szolwinski, M.P., Harish, Farris, T.H., G., Sakagami, T., "In-situ measurement of near-surface fretting contact temperatures in aluminium alloy", ASME Journal of Tribology, 121(1), 1999, pp.11-19.

13. Brandi, M.X., Mackin, T.J., "Infrared imaging of slip zones in a model fretting geometry", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 133-136.

14. Tomlinson, R.A., Greene, R.J., Delaney, K.V., "The application of thermoelastic stress analysis to compressor vanes", Proceedings of the SEM IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, June 5-8, 2000, Orlando, Florida, pp. 84-87.

 

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